Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) being a systemic inflammation, is associated with various comorbidities, but it is unknown to which extent COPD is associated with chronic renal failure (CRF) and the relationship between renal failure and COPD is largely undescribed. However, CRF in COPD patients might explain the association between COPD and a large number of other comorbidities, such as anemia and osteoporosis. Therefore, CRF should be screened for not only by serum creatinine level, but also by the estimated glomerular filtration rate in order to recognize the cases of CRF in COPD patients. In this paper, the relationship between CRF and COPD is described with the current literature.